Arab Republic of Egypt Where Ancient Civilisation and Knowledge Meet


When mentioning Egypt, the Pyramid of Giza crosses the mind, but there are many other historical components of this nation. Indeed, this country is one of the cradles of the ancient civilisations, after the Mesopotamian civilisation. It was well known that Egypt was ruled by the pharaohs during that time.

Until today, this land is not only famous and popular, because of the historical buildings, but it is also home to Al-Azhar University, the second oldest university in the Muslim world. The Arab Republic of Egypt has the largest Arab population in the world and it is situated on the African Continent.

The ancient Egyptian civilisation existed near to the Nile River Valley. The Nile River was the main source for people to do farming, domestic tasks and many other things. The ancient Egyptian civilisation was led by the pharaohs and Cleopatra was the last pharaoh before the Roman armies conquered Egypt. The pharaohs considered their position during that time to be one of a god and some of the pharaohs claimed themselves as gods.

The Roman Empire rule started in Egypt and Christianity was the religion replacing the polytheism. Later, the Arabs came and spread Islam. Since then, Islam has taken the place as the major religion.

As the time passed, the Muslim Empire developed and the religion spread almost all over the world. During the ruling of the Turkish Ottoman Empire, the British started to invade. The troops took over Egypt after defeating the Egyptian troops and Egypt formally became a British protectorate in 1914. The Arab Republic of Egypt achieved its independence eight years after the protectorate.

Geography and people

Situated on African Continent, Egypt is divided into two sections in relation to the Nile, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. Upper Egypt is in the south whereas the Lower Egypt is in the north. The Nile River flows from the south and empties in Mediterranean Sea.

This country borders Libya to the west, Sudan to the south and Palestine to the northeast. Also, it borders the Mediterranean Sea in the North and Red Sea to the east. Egypt has a wide range of desert and without the Nile River Egypt would be absolutely dry. The annual rainfall for Egypt is around one inch, which makes about 2.5 centimetres.


Capital Cairo
Population 98.00 milion
Area 1,001,450,square km
Major Language (s) Arabic
Major Religion (s) Islam
Life Expectancy Male:71.4 ; Female:74.2
Currency Egyptian Pound (EGP)
Literacy Rate Youth : 93.3% ; Adult : 75.8%
GDP Per Capita USD 3724.00 (2016)

Cairo is the capital city of Egypt. The country is divided into four major parts; Nile Valley and Delta, Western Desert, Eastern Desert and Sinai Peninsula. The Nile Valley and Delta are from the north of the valley to the Mediterranean Sea.

As mentioned before, Egypt is divided into Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. The Nile Valley and Delta extend from Wadi Halfa to the south of Cairo and from North Cairo to the Mediterranean Sea. In the north, the river is divided into two branches, Damietta and Rashid, where they have highly fertile agricultural lands.

The second part is the Western Desert which spreads from the Nile Valley in the east to the Libyan borders in the west. It is spreads from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to Egypt’s southern borders. The northern section consists of the coastal planes, northern plateau and the Great Depression, Natroun Valley and Baharia Oasis. The southern section consists of Farafra, Kharga, Dakhla, and el-Owainat in the extreme south.

The third part, the Eastern Desert, expands from the Nile Valley in the west to the Red Sea, Suez Canal in the east. In the north, it is from Lake Manzala on the Mediterranean to Egypt’s southern borders with Sudan in the south. This place is marked with the Eastern Mountains that extend along the Red Sea with peaks that rise to approximately 3000 feet above the sea. Moreover, the desert is rich with natural sources including various ores such as gold, coal and oil.

The fourth part is the Sinai Peninsula, a wedged shape desert with its base at the Mediterranean in the north and its tip in the south as Ras Mohammed, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east and the Gulf of Suez and Suez Canal to the west. As for the climate, Egypt has two seasons. The cool and mild winter is from November to March and the hot summer is from May to September.

Although it is inhabited by a mostly Arab population, Egypt has a heterogeneous population in the urban areas. Egyptians live in the Nile Valley and Delta regions. Foreigners commonly live in the urban areas. Immigrant populations in Egypt include Persians, Greeks, Turks and Circassians.

The inhabitants of the middle Nile Valley are known as Sa’idi and practise conservative culture. Moreover, the extreme southern valley has Nubians, an ethnic sub-Saharan Africa population. If we go through to the desert, the inhabitants are the nomadic, seminomadic and sedentary. Those people live in Sinai and the Eastern Desert, they are the immigrants from Arabia and follow traditional tribal social organisation.

In the southern section of the Eastern Desert, the Egyptian Bejas are divided into two tribes: the ‘Ababdah and the Bisharin. The ‘Ababdah occupy between Qina and Al-Ghardaqah and the Bisharin are settled in Sudan. The mixed Arab and the Amazeigh are the inhabitants of the Western Desert. They are also divided into two: the Sa’adi and the Murabitin. Egyptians use Arabic Language as the official language of the country and there are two types of Arabic used in their daily life: Fusha (The formal Arabic) and ‘Ammiyah (The colloquial Arabic). In some institutions and places, the Egyptians use English or French.


The first thing many think of is the well-known university of Al-Azhar University. Like other countries the educational system in Egypt is divided into public and private. The private educational system is based on the private schools system.

There are three stages for public educational system. The first stage is the basic stage for 4–14 years old. Education is compulsory starting from six years of age. In this stage, the kindergarten will take two years, primary will take five years and preparatory will take three years.

The second stage is the secondary school where it is in between the range of 14–17 years old. The secondary stage is divided into two, particularly the general secondary and the technical secondary. To proceed to the general secondary, the student must pass the preparatory stage at the basic level.

Also, there is an Islamic educational system which is called as Al-Azhar system. The syllabus is similar with the public curriculum, but it has an additional syllabus which covers study of the Quran and Islamic sciences. It has three stages: four year primary stage, three years preparatory stage and four year secondary stage.

Higher education is the level reached once the student has finished the secondary level. This level includes non-university training in engineering and technological education institutes, educational institutes, private institutes, technical industrial institutes and commercial and hotel institutes.

Higher education will use two languages, Arabic and English, as the medium of instruction. The Arabic language is for the humanities, social studies, education, law, commerce, economics, and political sciences, information, social services, tourism and hotels studies whereas the English language is used in medicine, pharmacology, dentistry science and engineering.

Some of the universities in Egypt are well-known and they hold places of high the rankings in the world. They are the American University in Cairo, Cairo University, Ain Shams University, Alexandria University, Mansoura University, Assiut University, Al-Azhar University, Zagaziq University and Technische Universitat Berlin.


As this country is rich in natural resources, the Arab Republic of Egypt started to develop economically when its GDP per capita stated an increment from USD 3717 in 2015 to USD 3724 in 2016.

The unemployment rate in the first quarter of 2017 stated the decline from 12.4% to 12% based on the last quarter of 2016. According to Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistic (CAMPAS), the employed men are around 20.621 million while the female employees make up 5.025 million. The workforce consists of fixed salary employees (17.052 million-66.7%), business owners (2.772 million-10.8%), independent professionals (3.347 million-13%), official wage/family projects (2.475 million-9.7%) and agriculture as well as fishing sector (5.302 million-20.7%). From this data, it can be said that most Egyptian are dependent on the wages rather than working or having the independent companies.


It is well-known that Egypt is famous for its pyramids and other ancient structures. Since the Great Pyramid of Giza and the Sphinx are already well-known among the tourists, Egypt also has other attractions that can make the tourists crave to come visit this country again and again.

To experience a great ocean view, Hurghada, Red Sea is a good choice for the sea lovers and the snorkelers. Many sea activities can be performed there such as snorkelling, scuba diving, wind surfing, sailing, horse riding and deep sea fishing. For those who love historical artefacts and buildings, of course they can visit the Egyptian Museum which is located in the heart of Cairo. Not to forget Abu Simbel Temple, an old worship temple built during the reign of Ramesses the Great. Like Taj Mahal, he built it as a monument of him and his beloved wife, Queen Nefertari.